出版时间：2012-6出版社：华中师范大学出版社作者：张雅军页数：228书名：建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践

《建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践》汇集了建构主义理论的中心观点，探讨了如何在建构主义理论指导下进行自主学习的问题；分析了自主学习的历史根源及发展过程，阐述了自主学习的独有特征，介绍了麦考姆斯、宾特里奇等大师设计的自主学习模型；重点论述了自主学习的教学模式及其在课堂中的实际应用，并以此为契机，展示了自主学习中心建立的必要性以及构成与发展自主学习中心的基本要素。

张雅军，女，副教授，山东工商学院国际合作与交流处副处长。毕业于大连外国语学院英语语言文学专业，曾在澳大利亚南澳大学访学与交流。长期从事英语教学和国际交流工作，研究方向为应用语言学，主攻课程与教学理论与实践。在专业学术期刊发表有关课程与教学方面的论文20余篇，出版学术专著1部，教材和教辅5部。目前，围绕大学教育实际，在课堂教学理论与实践，尤其是建构主义与自主学习领域做了一些理论探讨和实践创新。

Chapter1 Introduction1.1 TraditionalTeacherCenteredApproach1.2 TheAimofThisBook1.3 AutonomyandRelatedConcepts1.4 OverviewofThisBookChapter2 ASurveyofCotructivistTheory2.1 DefinitionofCotructivism2.2 HistoricalRootsofCotructivism2.3 FundamentalPrinciplesofCotructivism2.4 CotructivistLearningTheories2.5 ImplicatioofCotructivismforClassroomTeachingChapter3 ReviewsonLearnerAutonomy3.1 DefinitionofLearnerAutonomy3.2 TheTheoreticalBackground3.3 FundamentalPrinciplesofLearnerAutonomy3.4 JustificationofLearnerAutonomy3.5 PromotingAutonomyinClassroomChapter4 CharacteristicsofLearnerAutonomy4.1 CharacteristicsofAutonomousLearne4.2 KeyFactoAffectingLearnerAutonomy4.3 ConditioofLearnerAutonomyintheFrameworkofCotructivismChapter5 ModelsofLearnerAutonomy5.1 Pintrich'sFramework5.2 SocialCognitiveTheory5.3 ButlerandWinne'sModel5.4 WinneandHadwin'sFourPhaseModel5.5 McCombs'Model5.6 Garrison'sModel5.7 BrockettandHiemstra'sModel5.8 Hadwin'sModelofTaskUndetandingChapter6 ItructionalModelsofLearnerAutonomy6.1 ItructionalPrinciples6.2 CooperativeItructionModel6.3 ProblemBasedItruction/Vlodel6.4 WebBasedItructionModel6.5 AnchoredItruction（AI）Chapter7 AutonomyinClassroom7.1 TheAutonomousClassroom7.2 ImplementingLearnerAutonomy7.3 OrganizingClassroomWork7.4 Assessment7.5 FeedbackChapter8 AutonomousLearningCenter8.1 DefinitionofSACs8.2 TheDevelopmentofSACs8.3 TypesofSACs8.4 RationaleforSACs8.5 KeyFactoofSACs8.6 ProcessofSettingupaSAC8.7 MaintainingtheSAC8.8 PotentialHurdlesandChallenges8.9 MainSACsintheWorldChapter9 ConclusionBibliography

4.2KeyFactorsAffectingLearnerAutonomy Itshouldbereiteratedthatautonomyisnotanarticleoffaith,aproduct readymadeforuseormerelyapersonalqualityortrait.Asfaraslearner autonomyisconcerned,itisinfluencedbymanykindsoffactorsinaccordance withitsdifferentdegreessuchaslearningmotivation,learningattitude, learningstrategyandmeta-cognitiveknowledgeandsoon.Obviously,notalllearnersaresuccessfullearnersbecauseofmulti-variables.Theyaredifferentfromeachotherinabilities,personalities,intellects,interests,needsandsoon.Althougheveryonehasbigpotentialoflearnerautonomy,thedegreesoflearnerautonomyaredifferentfromeachother.Therefore,inordertogaindeeperinsightsintolearnerautonomy,itisverynecessarytopaymuchattentiontothesefactorswiththeaimofdevelopinglearners'autonomouslearning. 4.2.1Motivation Mostscholarsseemtoagreethattheterm"motivation"isoneofthekey factorsthatinfluencetherateandsuccessoflanguagelearning.Motivation providestheprimaryimpetustoinitiatelearningandlaterthedrivingforcetosustainthelongandoftentediouslearningprocess(Dornyei,2001).WilliamLittlewood(2000)says,"Motivationisthecrucialforcewhichdetermines whetheralearnerembarksonataskatall,howmuchenergyhedevotestoit,andhowlongheperseveres." Motivationiscommonlythoughtofasaninnerdrive,impulse,emotion,ordesirethatmovesonetoaparticularaction.Or,inmoretechnicalterms,motivationrefersto"thechoicespeoplemakeastowhatexperiencesorgoalstheywillapproachoravoid,andthedegreeofefforttheywillexertinthatrespect"(Keller,1983). Motivationinsecondlanguagelearningisacomplexphenomenonwhichcanbedefinedintermsoffourmaincomponents: ——Group-specificattitudes; ——Learners'motivesforlearningthetargetlanguage; ——Affectivefactors; ——Extrinsicandintrinsicmotivation.(Stern,1983) Group-specificattitudesrefertotheattitudestowardsthesecondlanguagecommunity.Iflearnershavefavorableattitudestowardsthespeakersofthelanguage,theywilldesiremorecontactwiththem.Likewise,iflearnersneedtospeakthelanguageinawiderangeofsocialsituationsortofulfillprofessionalambitions,theywillperceivethecommunicativevalueofthesecondlanguageandwill,therefore,bemotivatedtoacquireproficiencyinit. ThismodelwassubsequentlyexpandedinGardner'ssocio-educationalmodelofthewaysinwhichmotivationforforeignlanguagelearningoperatesineducationalsettings,.andhasbeensummarizedintermsoffivehypotheses(Gardner,1988)： (1)Theintegrativemotivehypothesis:Integrativemotivationispositivelyassociatedwithsecondlanguageachievement. (2)Theculturalbeliefhypothesis:Culturalbeliefsinfluencethedevelopmentoftheintegrativemotiveandthedegreetowhichintegrativenessandachievementarerelated. (3)Theactivelearnerhypothesis:Integrativelymotivatedlearnersaresuccessfulbecausetheyareactivelearners. (4)Thecausalityhypothesis:Integrativemotivationisacause;secondlanguageachievement,theeffect. (5)Thetwoprocesshypothesis:Aptitudeandintegrativemotivationsareindependentfactorsinsecondlanguagelearning. Gardner&Lambert(1972)makethedistinctionbetweenintegrativeandinstrumentalmotivation:Alearnerwithintegrativemotivationhasagenuineinterestinthecultureofthetargetlanguageandpeopletointegratemorewithinthetarget-languagesociety. He/shewantstolearntheirlanguageinordertocommunicatewiththemmoresatisfactorilyandgainclosercontactwiththemandtheirculture.However,instrumentalmotivationreferstolanguagelearningformoreimmediateorpracticalgoals. Learnersmaymakeeffortstolearnasecondlanguageforsomefunctionalreasons-topassartexam,togetabetterjob,ortogetaplaceatuniversity.Theyaremotivatedtolearnasecondlanguagebecauseitopensupeducationalandeconomicopportunitiesforthem. Whilebothintegrativeandinstrumentalmotivationsareessentialelementsofsuccess,itisintegrativemotivationwhichhasbeenfoundtomaintainlong-termsuccesswhenlearningasecondlanguage.Butnowadaystheimportanceofinstrumentalmotivationisalsostressed.Brown(2001)pointsoutthatintegrativeandinstrumental.motivationsarenotnecessarilymutuallyexclusive.Integrativemotivationiscontinuallylinkedtosuccessfulsecondlanguageacquisition.Ithasalsobeenshowntobestronglyrelatedtosecondlanguageachievement.Itservesasapowerfulfactorofsuccesscombiningwithinstrumentalmotivation.Teachersshouldbeabletoidentifyboththetypesandthecombinationofmotivationthatassistinthesuccessfulacquisitionofasecondlanguage. Withrespecttolearnerautonomy,evenifthereiscontroversyasfortherelationshipbetweenmotivationandlearnerautonomy,whetheritismotivationthatpromotesautonomyorautonomythatcreatesmotivation,itsfunctiononsecondlanguagelearningorforeignlanguagelearningisconsiderable.Spratt(2002)inHongKongPolytechnicUniversityconductedastudydealingwiththerelationshipbetweenautonomyandmotivationinlanguagelearningandtheyconcludedthatmotivationisakeyfactorthatinfluencestheextenttowhichlearnersarereadytolearnautonomouslyandthatteachersmightthereforetrytoensuremotivationbeforetheytrainlearnerstobecomeautonomous. Theimplicationwecanobtainfromthebriefreviewoftherelationshipbetweenmotivationandlearner'autonomyisthatinordertofosterlearnerautonomyfromwithintheclassroom,thefirstthingateachershoulddoistodeveloplearners'motivation.Intheteachingprocessateachershouldconsidertheseaspects,e.g.givingthemagoodenvironmentforlanguagelearningtomotivatethemandaneffectiveteachingmethodinordertopreparethemforautonomouslearning.Withoutmotivationoflearning,itishardforalearnertomakeastudyplan,andtomonitorlearningprocess.Withoutmotivation,learnerautonomywillbeprobablyimpossible. 4.2.2Attitudes Webster'sRevisedUnabridgedDictionary(1913)definesattitudeas"acomplexmentalorientationinvolvingbeliefsandfeelingsandvaluesanddispositionstoactincertainways,"whileCollinsCobuildStudent'sDictionary(1990)explainsthat:"Yourattitudetosomethingisthewayyouthinkandfeelaboutit."Theterm"attitude,"asdefinedbySarnoff(1970),dealswithadispositiontoreactfavorablyorunfavorablytoaclassofobjects.Eagly&Chaiken(1995)expandthisideabystatingthatattitudeisalloutcomeofthecategorizationprocess,andthisprocessisinfluencedbysocialenvironment. Attitudescanbeclassedasitemsofsocialknowledgethatarecontinuallyformed,strengthenedandmodified.Theycanbedefinedasmediatedreactionsthathavebeeninfluencedbysocialcontext. Attitudesareameansofadjustingtoandstronglymakingchangesinonesocialenvironment.Baker(1988)outlinesthemainfeaturesofattitudeas:1)Attitudesarecognitiveandaffective;2)Attitudesaredimensional,inthattheyvaryindegreeoffavorability/unfavorability;3)Attitudesarelearnt;4)Attitudesoftenpersist,howevertheycanbemodifiedbyexperience;5)Attitudesinclineapersontoactinacertainway. Wenden(1998)definesattitudesaslearnedmotivations,valuedbeliefs,evaluations,whatonebelievesisacceptable,orresponsesorientedtowardsapproachingoravoiding.Forher,twokindsofattitudesarecrucial:attitudeslearnersholdabouttheirroleinthelearningprocessandtheircapabilityaslearners.Inasense,attitudesareaformofmeta-cognitiveknowledge. ……

《建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践》汇集了建构主义理论的中心观点，探讨了如何在建构主义理论指导下进行自主学习的问题；分析了自主学习的历史根源及发展过程，阐述了自主学习的独有特征，介绍了麦考姆斯、宾特里奇等大师设计的自主学习模型；重点论述了自主学习的教学模式及其在课堂中的实际应用。

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