建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践

建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践

图书基本信息
出版时间:2012-6
出版社:华中师范大学出版社
作者:张雅军
页数:228
书名:建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践
封面图片
建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践
内容概要
  《建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践》汇集了建构主义理论的中心观点,探讨了如何在建构主义理论指导下进行自主学习的问题;分析了自主学习的历史根源及发展过程,阐述了自主学习的独有特征,介绍了麦考姆斯、宾特里奇等大师设计的自主学习模型;重点论述了自主学习的教学模式及其在课堂中的实际应用,并以此为契机,展示了自主学习中心建立的必要性以及构成与发展自主学习中心的基本要素。
作者简介
  张雅军,女,副教授,山东工商学院国际合作与交流处副处长。毕业于大连外国语学院英语语言文学专业,曾在澳大利亚南澳大学访学与交流。长期从事英语教学和国际交流工作,研究方向为应用语言学,主攻课程与教学理论与实践。在专业学术期刊发表有关课程与教学方面的论文20余篇,出版学术专著1部,教材和教辅5部。目前,围绕大学教育实际,在课堂教学理论与实践,尤其是建构主义与自主学习领域做了一些理论探讨和实践创新。
书籍目录
Chapter
1 Introduction1.1 Traditional
TeacherCentered
Approach1.2 The
Aim
of
This
Book1.3 Autonomy
and
Related
Concepts1.4 Overview
of
This
BookChapter
2 A
Survey
of
Co
tructivist
Theory2.1 Definition
of
Co
tructivism2.2 Historical
Roots
of
Co
tructivism2.3 Fundamental
Principles
of
Co
tructivism2.4 Co
tructivist
Learning
Theories2.5 Implicatio
of
Co
tructivism
for
Classroom
TeachingChapter
3 Reviews
on
Learner
Autonomy3.1 Definition
of
Learner
Autonomy3.2 The
Theoretical
Background3.3 Fundamental
Principles
of
Learner
Autonomy3.4 Justification
of
Learner
Autonomy3.5 Promoting
Autonomy
in
ClassroomChapter
4 Characteristics
of
Learner
Autonomy4.1 Characteristics
of
Autonomous
Learne
4.2 Key
Facto
Affecting
Learner
Autonomy4.3 Conditio
of
Learner
Autonomy
in
the
Framework
of
Co
tructivismChapter
5 Models
of
Learner
Autonomy5.1 Pintrich's
Framework5.2 Social
Cognitive
Theory5.3 Butler
and
Winne's
Model5.4 Winne
and
Hadwin's
FourPhase
Model5.5 McCombs'
Model5.6 Garrison's
Model5.7 Brockett
and
Hiemstra's
Model5.8 Hadwin's
Model
of
Task
Unde
tandingChapter
6 I
tructional
Models
of
Learner
Autonomy6.1 I
tructional
Principles6.2 Cooperative
I
truction
Model6.3 ProblemBased
I
truction/Vlodel6.4 WebBased
I
truction
Model6.5 Anchored
I
truction
(AI)Chapter
7 Autonomy
in
Classroom7.1 The
Autonomous
Classroom7.2 Implementing
Learner
Autonomy7.3 Organizing
Classroom
Work7.4 Assessment7.5 FeedbackChapter
8 Autonomous
Learning
Center8.1 Definition
of
SACs8.2 The
Development
of
SACs8.3 Types
of
SACs8.4 Rationale
for
SACs8.5 Key
Facto
of
SACs8.6 Process
of
Setting
up
a
SAC8.7 Maintaining
the
SAC8.8 Potential
Hurdles
and
Challenges8.9 Main
SACs
in
the
WorldChapter
9 ConclusionBibliography
章节摘录
  4.2
Key
Factors
Affecting
Learner
Autonomy  It
should
be
reiterated
that
autonomy
is
not
an
article
of
faith,
a
product  ready
made
for
use
or
merely
a
personal
quality
or
trait.
As
far
as
learner  autonomy
is
concerned,
it
is
influenced
by
many
kinds
of
factors
in
accordance  with
its
different
degrees
such
as
learning
motivation,
learning
attitude,  learning
strategy
and
meta-cognitive
knowledge
and
so
on.
Obviously,
not
all
learners
are
successful
learners
because
of
multi-variables.
They
are
different
from
each
other
in
abilities,
personalities,intellects,
interests,
needs
and
so
on.
Although
everyone
has
big
potential
of
learner
autonomy,
the
degrees
of
learner
autonomy
are
different
from
each
other.
Therefore,
in
order
to
gain
deeper
insights
into
learner
autonomy,
it
is
very
necessary
to
pay
much
attention
to
these
factors
with
the
aim
of
developing
learners'
autonomous
learning.  4.2.1
Motivation  Most
scholars
seem
to
agree
that
the
term
"motivation"
is
one
of
the
key  factors
that
influence
the
rate
and
success
of
language
learning.
Motivation  provides
the
primary
impetus
to
initiate
learning
and
later
the
driving
force
to
sustain
the
long
and
often
tedious
learning
process
(Dornyei,2001).William
Littlewood
(2000)
says,
"Motivation
is
the
crucial
force
which
determines  whether
a
learner
embarks
on
a
task
at
all,
how
much
energy
he
devotes
to
it,and
how
long
he
perseveres.
"  Motivation
is
commonly
thought
of
as
an
inner
drive,
impulse,
emotion,
or
desire
that
moves
one
to
a
particular
action.
Or,
in
more
technical
terms,
motivation
refers
to
"the
choices
people
make
as
to
what
experiences
or
goals
they
will
approach
or
avoid,
and
the
degree
of
effort
they
will
exert
in
that
respect"
(Keller,
1983).  Motivation
in
second
language
learning
is
a
complex
phenomenon
which
can
be
defined
in
terms
of
four
main
components:  ——Group-specific
attitudes;  ——Learners'
motives
for
learning
the
target
language;  ——Affective
factors;  ——Extrinsic
and
intrinsic
motivation.
(Stern,
1983)  Group-specific
attitudes
refer
to
the
attitudes
towards
the
second
language
community.
If
learners
have
favorable
attitudes
towards
the
speakers
of
the
language,
they
will
desire
more
contact
with
them.
Likewise,
if
learners
need
to
speak
the
language
in
a
wide
range
of
social
situations
or
to
fulfill
professional
ambitions,
they
will
perceive
the
communicative
value
of
the
second
language
and
will,
therefore,
be
motivated
to
acquire
proficiency
in
it.  This
model
was
subsequently
expanded
in
Gardner's
socio-educational
model
of
the
ways
in
which
motivation
for
foreign
language
learning
operates
in
educational
settings,.and
has
been
summarized
in
terms
of
five
hypotheses
(Gardner,
1988):  (1)
The
integrative
motive
hypothesis:
Integrative
motivation
is
positively
associated
with
second
language
achievement.  (2)
The
cultural
belief
hypothesis:Cultural
beliefs
influence
the
development
of
the
integrative
motive
and
the
degree
to
which
integrativeness
and
achievement
are
related.  (3)
The
active
learner
hypothesis:
Integratively
motivated
learners
are
successful
because
they
are
active
learners.  (4)
The
causality
hypothesis:
Integrative
motivation
is
a
cause;
second
language
achievement,
the
effect.  (5)
The
two
process
hypothesis:
Aptitude
and
integrative
motivations
are
independent
factors
in
second
language
learning.  Gardner
&
Lambert
(1972)
make
the
distinction
between
integrative
and
instrumental
motivation:
A
learner
with
integrative
motivation
has
a
genuine
interest
in
the
culture
of
the
target
language
and
people
to
integrate
more
within
the
target-language
society. He/she
wants
to
learn
their
language
in
order
to
communicate
with
them
more
satisfactorily
and
gain
closer
contact
with
them
and
their
culture.
However,
instrumental
motivation
refers
to
language
learning
for
more
immediate
or
practical
goals. Learners
may
make
efforts
to
learn
a
second
language
for
some
functional
reasons-to
pass
art
exam,
to
get
a
better
job,
or
to
get
a
place
at
university.
They
are
motivated
to
learn
a
second
language
because
it
opens
up
educational
and
economic
opportunities
for
them.  While
both
integrative
and
instrumental
motivations
are
essential
elements
of
success,
it
is
integrative
motivation
which
has
been
found
to
maintain
long-
term
success
when
learning
a
second
language.
But
nowadays
the
importance
of
instrumental
motivation
is
also
stressed.
Brown
(2001)
points
out
that
integrative
and
instrumental.
motivations
are
not
necessarily
mutually
exclusive.
Integrative
motivation
is
continually
linked
to
successful
second
language
acquisition.
It
has
also
been
shown
to
be
strongly
related
to
second
language
achievement.
It
serves
as
a
powerful
factor
of
success
combining
with
instrumental
motivation.
Teachers
should
be
able
to
identify
both
the
types
and
the
combination
of
motivation
that
assist
in
the
successful
acquisition
of
a
second
language.  With
respect
to
learner
autonomy,
even
if
there
is
controversy
as
for
the
relationship
between
motivation
and
learner
autonomy,
whether
it
is
motivation
that
promotes
autonomy
or
autonomy
that
creates
motivation,
its
function
on
second
language
learning
or
foreign
language
learning
is
considerable.
Spratt
(2002)
in
Hong
Kong
Polytechnic
University
conducted
a
study
dealing
with
the
relationship
between
autonomy
and
motivation
in
language
learning
and
they
concluded
that
motivation
is
a
key
factor
that
influences
the
extent
to
which
learners
are
ready
to
learn
autonomously
and
that
teachers
might
therefore
try
to
ensure
motivation
before
they
train
learners
to
become
autonomous.  The
implication
we
can
obtain
from
the
brief
review
of
the
relationship
between
motivation
and
learner'autonomy
is
that
in
order
to
foster
learner
autonomy
from
within
the
classroom,
the
first
thing
a
teacher
should
do
is
to
develop
learners'
motivation.
In
the
teaching
process
a
teacher
should
consider
these
aspects,
e.
g.
giving
them
a
good
environment
for
language
learning
to
motivate
them
and
an
effective
teaching
method
in
order
to
prepare
them
for
autonomous
learning.
Without
motivation
of
learning,
it
is
hard
for
a
learner
to
make
a
study
plan,
and
to
monitor
learning
process.
Without
motivation,
learner
autonomy
will
be
probably
impossible.  4.2.2
Attitudes  Webster's
Revised
Unabridged
Dictionary
(1913)
defines
attitude
as
"a
complex
mental
orientation
involving
beliefs
and
feelings
and
values
and
dispositions
to
act
in
certain
ways,"
while
Collins
Cobuild
Student's
Dictionary
(1990)
explains
that:
"Your
attitude
to
something
is
the
way
you
think
and
feel
about
it.
"
The
term
"attitude,"
as
defined
by
Sarnoff
(1970)
,deals
with
a
disposition
to
react
favorably
or
unfavorably
to
a
class
of
objects.
Eagly
&
Chaiken
(1995)
expand
this
idea
by
stating
that
attitude
is
all
outcome
of
the
categorization
process,
and
this
process
is
influenced
by
social
environment.  Attitudes
can
be
classed
as
items
of
social
knowledge
that
are
continually
formed,
strengthened
and
modified.
They
can
be
defined
as
mediated
reactions
that
have
been
influenced
by
social
context. Attitudes
are
a
means
of
adjusting
to
and
strongly
making
changes
in
one
social
environment.
Baker
(1988)
outlines
the
main
features
of
attitude
as:
1)
Attitudes
are
cognitive
and
affective;
2)
Attitudes
are
dimensional,
in
that
they
vary
in
degree
of
favorability/unfavorability;
3)
Attitudes
are
learnt;
4)
Attitudes
often
persist,
however
they
can
be
modified
by
experience;
5)
Attitudes
incline
a
person
to
act
in
a
certain
way.  Wenden
(1998)
defines
attitudes
as
learned
motivations,
valued
beliefs,
evaluations,
what
one
believes
is
acceptable,
or
responses
oriented
towards
approaching
or
avoiding.
For
her,
two
kinds
of
attitudes
are
crucial:
attitudes
learners
hold
about
their
role
in
the
learning
process
and
their
capability
as
learners.
In
a
sense,
attitudes
are
a
form
of
meta-cognitive
knowledge.  ……
编辑推荐
  《建构主义指导下的自主学习理论与实践》汇集了建构主义理论的中心观点,探讨了如何在建构主义理论指导下进行自主学习的问题;分析了自主学习的历史根源及发展过程,阐述了自主学习的独有特征,介绍了麦考姆斯、宾特里奇等大师设计的自主学习模型;重点论述了自主学习的教学模式及其在课堂中的实际应用。
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评论与打分
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  •     推荐的教育类课本,还在慢慢研究中
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