社会语言学与英语学习

社会语言学与英语学习

图书基本信息
出版时间:2010-7
出版社:东南大学出版社
作者:谢徐萍
页数:261
书名:社会语言学与英语学习
封面图片
社会语言学与英语学习
前言
  社会语言学是语言学中的重要研究成果领域或分支之一,虽然确立至今只有不到40年的历史,却因其独特的学科性质和极强的发展能力而备受关注。目前,社会语言学已经和句法学、音系学、语义学等一起,成为许多大学语言学专业的核心课程。国外学者编著出版的社会语言学教程虽各具特色,然与我国的英语教育教学关系不够紧密;由国内学者编著出版的社会语言学教程/著作大都用中文编写,并不十分适用于英语专业研究生课程教科书而只能作为课程参考书。  社会语言学主要研究的是语言的变异、变体、语言使用习惯上的差异,以及造成这些变异、变体及差异的社会文化因素。因此我认为,开设社会语言学这门课程的目的是:(1)向学生介绍作为世界通用语在不同的社会交际中、在跨文化交际中频繁使用的英语与社会、文化、交际、语境等方面的关系;(2)强调语言使用者必须掌握语言的社会功能、语言的变体、语言的变迁、语言的层次、语言的风格、语言使用的不同方式;(3)从社会语言学角度,观察英语、强化英语实践的能力,提高英语掌握的层次,指导英语实践。这三点也构成我拟编本教材的主导思想。  本书的主要读者是英语语言学专业的学生、语言研究者和语言教师,所以除了介绍一些社会语言学的基本概念以外,本书还运用社会语言学理论深入地讨论英语学习中的实际问题。本书共分10个章节。第l章绪论:从社会语言学的兴起与现状,社会语言学的研究对象、研究范围和目标,语言与社会的关系以及社会语言学与英语学习的关系等方面去概述什么是社会语言学,并对全书框架作简要介绍。第2章语言的变化:介绍了社会语言学中的一些基本概念,如“语项”、“变异”、“变体”、“变项”、“变式”、“语言社团”、“语言网络”。通过语音、词汇、语法、语义上种种变异,分析了语言变化的实质与产生变化的原因。第3章语言变化空间与范围:介绍了方言、土语、共通语、口音、同言线、方言连续统等概述,讨论了语言与方言的区别与联系以及标准语、洋泾浜语、克里奥语、语言的消失与复苏等问题。第4章语言与性别:分析了语言中的性别语言、性别歧视现象与因素,并推而广之指出英语中存在语言偏见现象。第5章英语世界里的英语变体:分析并讨论了各种社会因素影响人们选择和使用特定的语言形式以及黑人英语的形成与特点、形成好英语和坏英语的标准,譬如,不同的区域和社会阶层方面的相关因素影响人们使用语言时的发音、句法和词语特征,以及社会规范影响不同性别的话语模式和交际风格等等。
内容概要
语言是社会组合的工具。社会语言学对语言现象的一个基本认识是语言的变异性。本书着重研究语言与社会、语言与文化、语言与风格、语言与交际、语言与语境的关系;从社会语言学角度观察英语特点;帮助英语学习者了解在跨文化交际方面的知识,掌握英语技能,指导英语实践。    本书可作为英语专业本科生和研究生的教材,亦适用于英语学习者和英语爱好者,对英语教师和英语工作者也有较高的参考价值。
作者简介
谢徐萍:教授,硕士生导师,1983年毕业于南京师范大学外国语学院。现任南通大学外国语学院英语应用语言学研究所所长、研究生教研室主任:2003年赴澳大利亚昆士兰大学教育研究生院做高级访问学者。研究方向为语言学、教育心理学。主持江苏省教育厅课题及其他项目10余项。出版专著《英语读写文化(Literacy)研究》,获江苏省第二届教育科学优秀成果三等奖,迄今在省级以上学术期刊发表学术论文50多篇,其中在国外MELTA、《外语界》、《学术论坛》等CSSCI核心期刊发表论文约20篇,论文多次被中国人民大学书报资料中心全文转载,并获得江苏省各类优秀教育教学论文和科学研究成果奖励多项。
书籍目录
1
An
Introduction
to
Sociolinguistics
1.1
What
is
Sociolinguistics?
1.2
History
of
Sociolinguistics
in
the
West
1.3
Language
and
Society
1.3.1
Language
as
Social
Behavior
1.3.2
Language
as
a
Communicative
Means
1.3.3
Language
as
an
Information
System
1.4
Sociolinguistics
and
English
Learning
1.5
Summary2
Language
Change
2.1
Introduction
2.1.1
Linguistic
Item
2.1.2
Variety
2.1.3
Linguistic
Variable
2.1.4
Speech
Community
2.1.5
Networks
and
Repertoires
2.2
Forms
of
Language
Change
2.2.1
Phonological
Change
2.2.2
Morphological
Changes
2.2.3
Lexical
Semantic
Change
2.2.4
Grammatical
Change
2.3
Nature
of
Change
2.3.1
Internal
and
External
Change
2.3.2
Family
Tree
2.3.3
Wave
Diffusion2.4
Factors
of
Change
2.4.1
Imitation
of
the
Prestigious
2.4.2
Slang
and
Dialects
2.4.3
Simplification
2.4.4
Politeness
2.4.5
Stratum
Terms
2.5
General
Conclusions3
Language
Variety
Space
3.1
Language
and
Dialect
3.1.1
Dialecte
and
Patois
3.1.2
Size
and
Prestige
3.1.3
Social
and
Political
Factors
3.1.4
Dialect
and
Intelligibility
3.2
Standard
Languages
3.2.1
Standardization
3.2.2
Historicity
and
Vitality
3.2.3
Autonomy
and
Acceptance
3.2.4
Reduction
and
Mixture
3.3
Pidgin
and
Creole
3.3.1
Lingua
Francas
3.3.2
Pidgins
3.3.3
Creoles
3.3.4
Theories
of
Origin
3.4
Language
Loss
and
Revival
3.5
General
Conclusions4
Language
and
Gender
4.1
Male/Female
Language
4.1.1
Male/Female
Lexical
Forms
4.1.2
Male/Female
Language
Differences
4.2
Sexism
in
Languages
4.2.1
Marked
and
Unmarked
Terms
4.2.2
Female
Vocabulary
4.2.3
Sexist
Language
4.3
Sex
Differences
and
Possible
Reasons
4.3.1
Social
Division
of
Labour
4.3.2
Social
Prejudice
4.3.3
Power
and
Control
4.3.4
Role
Relations
4.4
Language
Bias
in
English
4.5
General
Conclusion5
Varieties
in
the
English
World
5.1
English
and
Social
Class
5.1.1
Class
and
Status
5.1.2
Social
Class
and
Language
Variation
5.1.3
Social
Status
and
'
Prestige'
Norms
5.2
Black
English
in
America
5.2.1
Characteristics
of
Black
English
5.2.2
Three
Views
on
Black
English
5.3
American
English
5.3.1
History
of
American
English
5.3.2
Characteristics
of
American
English
5.3.3
American
English
and
British
English
5.4
Good
English
and
Bad
English
5.5
Summary6
Language
and
Context
6.1
Context
Views
6.2
Linguistic
Context
6.2.1
Conceptual
Meaning
6.2.2
Grammatical
Meaning
6.2.3
Topic
Meaning
6.2.4
Collocative
Meaning6.3
Non-linguistic
Context
6.3.1
Cultural
Meaning
6.3.2
Stylistic
Meaning
6.3.3
Status
Meaning
6.3.4
Temporal
and
Spatial
Meaning6.4
Style
of
English
in
Application
6.4.1
Style
6.4.2
English
in
Advertisements
6.4.3
Features
in
Political
English
6.5
Register
6.5.1
Context
and
Register
6.5.2
Features
of
Register
6.6
Summary7
Cultural
Variety
of
Language
7.1
Language
and
Culture
7.2
Linguistic
and
Cultural
Relativity
7.2.1
The
Sapir-Whorf
Hypothesis
7.2.2
Reaction
to
Linguistic
and
Cultural
Relativity
7.3
Address
Forms
and
Culture
7.3.1
Kinship
Term
and
Kinship
System
7.3.2
Social
Address
7.4
Jargon,
Taboo
&
Euphemism
7.4.1
Jargon
7.4.2
Taboo
7.4.3
Euphemism8
Language
Contact
8.1
Diglossia
8.1.1
Definitions
of
Diglossia
8.1.2
Features
of
Diglossia
8.1.3
Extended
Meanings
of
Diglossia
8.2
Bilinguals
&
Bilingualism
8.2.1
Descriptive
Analysis
of
Bilingualism
8.2.2
Bilingual
Competence
8.3
Code
Choosing
and
Code
Switching
8.3.1
Code
Switching
8.3.2
Code-Mixing
8.3.3
Attitudes
to
Code
Switching
and
Code
Mixing
8.4
Concluding
Remarks9
Configurations
of
Language
9.1
Spoken
and
Written
Language
9.2
Differences
and
Similarities
Between
the
Two
Modalities
9.3
Continua
from
Written
to
Spoken
9.4
Variation
Across
Speech
and
Writing
9.5
Literacy
and
Literacies
9.6
General
Conclusions10
Communicative
Use
of
Language
10.1
Ethnography
of
Speaking
10.1.1
Descriptive
Analysis
of
Speaking
10.1.2
The
Norms
Governing
Speech
10.2
Speech
Acts
and
the
Cooperative
Principle
10.2.1
Properties
of
Speech
Acts
10.2.2
Indirect
Speech
Acts
10.2.3
Conversational
Maxims
10.3
Conversational
Structure
and
Strategies
10.3.1
Adjacency
Pairs
10.3.2
Turn-taking
10.3.3
Openings,
Topics
and
Closings
10.4
Face
and
Politeness
10.4.1
The
Face
Theory
10.4.2
Politeness
Principle
10.5
Concluding
RemarksBibliography
章节摘录
  On
most
occasions,
people
imitate
the
speech
of
those
who
are
in
higher
social
positions.
At
the
same
time,
many
upper
classes
also
borrow
slang
vocabulary
from
lower
classes,
especially
the
youth
from
the
higher
social
groups
who
often
imitate
the
pronunciation
or
informal
discourse
of
the
lower
strata.
For
example,
in
Australia
the
lower
class
people
are
fond
of
using
high-rise
terminal
in
declarative
sentences
as
they
treat
a
question,
which
is
thought
as
vulgar
and
full
of
vernacular
features
by
the
older
generation.
However,
many
youth
from
the
higher
strata
would
strive
to
be
the
first
in
imitating
it.  Different
discourse
styles
of
male
and
female
form
another
important
factor
generating
language
variation.
We
will
discuss
the
relationship
between
language
and
gender
in
chapter
4.
Holmes

1998

points
out
that
in
general,
women
tend
to
introduce
the
prestige
forms,
whereas
men
tend
to
lead
changes
in
the
opposite
direction,
introducing
new
vernacular
forms.
Women
use
more
standard
but
less
vernacular
forms
than
men.
Holmes
once
made
an
investigation
in
a
Spanish
countryside
and
found
that
many
women
there
tired
of
farming,
went
to
city
and
began
imitating
standard
language
after
they
found
jobs
in
the
city

even
as
baby-sitters,
they
could
contact
middle
class
employers).
In
contrast,
many
city
upper-working
class
men
often
adopted
informal
forms
of
middle
or
lower-working
class
men,
including
vulgar
of
swear
words
or
taboo
words.
编辑推荐
  《社会语言学与英语学习》的主要读者是英语语言学专业的学生、语言研究者和语言教师,所以除了介绍一些社会语言学的基本概念以外,《社会语言学与英语学习》还运用社会语言学理论深入地讨论英语学习中的实际问题。全书共分10个章节,主要包括:语言的变化;语言变化空间与范围;语言与性别;英语世界里的英语变体;语言与语境;语言的文化变异;语言接触;语言的多重构型;语言与交际等。
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